After some hours of confusion, I beleive I ran into a property of train stations that has little to no explanation and might be a big cause of the "non-feeding belts" problem.
If a train station and its connected platforms are setup like this: ("T->"=Train Station and direction, "F"=Freight Platform, "===" = Outbound Rail)
T-> F F F ===
Even though the station and freight platforms are valid and powered, once the Outbound rail is connected to the collective stations, the Freight Platforms become invalid and no longer accept any inputs and effectively shutdown.
This may seem like an obvious error,(putting the station before instead of after the platforms) but there is nothing describing how you should arrange the stations to assure they are valid.
I would consider this a bug but maybe it's just intuition. Any thoughts?